Chapter 6: © 2013, John Wsol, all rights reserved.    -- This is, very much, a work in progress…

When

Edit History

18-Jan-13

Begin. Item A. Add Quantum – Space~time equation matrix & KΘ explanation, the auto-mechanic analogy. Finish explaining K_Theta & Planck Mass.  “Do you know what pathway light dwells?” 8. A tiny slice of space~time  6. Add units expressed as Newtons( / )^2

19-Jan-13

Add Hypercube and Hypersphere images. Add time quantization explanation. Add Cosmic Onion.
Preface A. with “Define Space, Time and…”   Too much of the text required an introduction.  Include an abstract introduction.

24-Jan-13

Revised A.9a, added A.9b

25-Jan-13

add A.9c; more details to B.1, C.2d Dual Slit Experiment demystified.

26-Jan-13

Describe matter made from particles, made from superstrings, made from spring-waves intersecting Now-Manifold.

27-Jan-13

Go on to very briefly explain E. Pioneer Anomaly, F. Dark Matter, and G. start on Dark Energy

28-Jan-13

A.1-5 Did a better job at establishing context, better wording that is clearer and more concise.

29-Jan-13

C.2 Better wording and more specific description of the “Strong Nuclear Interaction”

1-Feb-13

A.11.b-d Connect quantum-level framework of gravitation to electro-magnetism and then to General Relativity.

4-Feb-13

A.11.d Connect the fine-structure constant into this quantum geometric framework.

6-Feb-13

A.11.e Add more detail to describing photons. B.1 Add more detail to the description of matter-waves. D. Explain 3 relativity theories.
Don’t mock the principal or Mach’s Principle. ;-)

9-Feb-13

10-Feb-13
14-Feb-13

A.11.b-d Mathematical formalization of how matter manifests mass as its energy-wavefunction penetrates the Cosmic Onion layers.  CERN scientists or ANY other concerned scientists, okay my partial differential where too weird, but getting better. 

  Anyone think this might be Dark Matter?    My vote is that this is the density of the Space Medium. 

1-12-May13

Update all physical constants (and calculations) to CODATA 2010 values.

 

Our Cosmos = Holographic Hyperspherical Quantum Computer

Abstract: The Cosmic Onion Model (COM) demystifies our universe.  These discoveries began with my interest in Cognitive Science.  Starting from the precept of “distinction” I built this informational hierarchy: data, information, knowledge, understanding & wisdom.  I became conscious of my mind making abstract connections at each of these levels.  Skipping Materialistic and Dualistic views of body-mind I realized that, at the core of our being (soul) we can perceive the world in and around us. 

Unconventionally correlating Genesis 1:1-9, in Hebrew, with modern physics I asked three questions: (1) I wonder if “mayim” are 4D “waters” filling space~time; past, present & future.  (2) I wonder, “ma’râcaph”:  are they “rotationally induced” 4D-spherical standing-waves “oscillating” at the Planck-time rate (5x10^-44 second)?   (3) I wonder, “hâyâh 'ôr: is this Big Flash, from the center of our Cosmic Onion, an abrupt (one Planck-time) ever-expanding 3D wavefront; defining the moment called, “Now”?  Suddenly, I could envision geometries of these quantum-scale waves explaining a core understanding of physical constants.  Concentric standing-wave Onion-Layers; their amplitude being proportional to the magnetic force constant Km 1x10-7 [N(s/C)2].  The differential of the inward (reverse time) vs. outward (forward time) being 4π*Km = µ0 [N/A2] = magnetic permeability.  The Big Flash (Now-Manifold) = magnetic component of EM waves.  As it penetrates Onion-Layers – encountering resistance (Impedance of Space, Z0) this: (1) regulates the flow of time and, (2) defines the speed of light, c = 376.73 Ohms/µ0). 

Next I constructed this equation matrix showing: [ h*f = Energy=Mass*c2, Space = Time*c2, Ke = Km*c2, G = K_Theta*c2, 1/ε0 = µ0*c2 ]  Where K_Theta [N(s/kg)2] or [m/kg] = half the Schwarzschild_radius[PlanckMass] – telling me that one-seconds worth of tiny oscillating cross-section of Onion-layers = PlanckMass.

From this quantum-level description all properties of forces, redshift, Special, General and Cosmological Relativity, Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Flow will be explained.

Information is holographically encoded: oscillation axis, frequency, phase, quantization and spiral polarization.  Interchange happens as near-field scalar-wave harmonic-resonance between the Now-Manifold and valence electrons.  I will explore possibilities that: s, p, d & f orbitals interface as dimensions of body, mind, soul and spirit.  Also correlating repetitive patterns in DNA with its chromosome coiling pattern may offer other clues.


 

Chapter 6: Mathematically assembling the Cosmic Puzzle

If you ask an expert auto-mechanic/engineer to explain how a gasoline engine works.  He is able to describe the engine block, the cylinders, the crankshaft and fly-wheel and how the air intake delivers air to the carburetor which atomizes the fuel into a fine mist, which then goes in through the intake manifold into intake-valves that are controlled by a cam-shaft that is synchronized with the crankshaft by a timing belt.  He would explain the function of the distributer and spark plugs in the cylinders.  He would describe the process going on in the cylinders as: intake, compression, power, exhaust.  Just from this engineer’s concise and clear explanation; he can make you smile.

Ask a quantum physicist to do the same.  I’ll bet he will show you some formulae using never-before-seen symbols in a notational system that would make even your high school teacher’s eyes pop out.  Then he refers you to a book over 800 pages long.  So you read starting at page 1, something about “gauge invariance”, which is not defined, so after reading over a dozen pages on the internet about “gauge invariance” you begin to realize two possibilities: (1) either, I’m just too stupid to understand this quantum physics stuff, or (2) all these PhD guys are indoctrinated into advanced techniques of hiding behind abstract mathematics, so they don’t have to admit that they don’t understand this stuff either.  ;-)

So let’s put the Cosmic Onion Model to the test.  Let’s see if it can explain the Cosmos (engine block), the Universe (synchronization), Energy (fuel) and Matter (air), interacting to create the Forces of nature (power), yet do it without you feeling stupid or exhausted. The trick is to arrange everything into a geometry that shows how the sub-microscopic quantum waves interact.

Cosmic Onion: not drawn to scale, the layers are really super-fine:

A.    Define Space, Time and the quantum structure of the Space Medium: The Cosmic Onion fills the volume of space~time: past, present and future.  Physical reality is contained within this 4D spherical standing wave. Outward moving waves are forward-time (positive charge); inward being backward time (negative charge).  This is the core reason behind all quantum phenomena -- time “itself” is quantized.

(Higher dimensions would likely be non-physical realities: dimensions of mind, soul and spirit.)

1.      Km: Magnetic Force Constant corresponds to the amplitude of the Cosmic Onion oscillations.

2.      µ0 = 4πKm: the Magnetic Permeability of Space, is the differential of the inward (-2π reverse time) versus outward (+2π forward time) of these concentric rotationally oscillating standing-waves.

3.      The “Big Flash” beginning from the center of our Cosmic Onion is an abrupt (one Planck-time) ever-expanding 3D wavefront; defining the moment called “Now.”  This “Now-Manifold” encounters resistance as it penetrates the Onion Layers.  Science calls this resistance the Impedance of Space, 0.  It regulates both the flow of time and defines the speed of light, c = 376.73 Ohms/µ0).   The profound fundamental realization is this: the expansion of the universe (space itself) IS one-and-the-same as the forward flow of time itself!  There is NO difference!

4.      HyperCubeBluGrnRedQuantum physics talks about higher-dimensions being curled-up smaller than the Planck-length – and, there is a debate within the physics community whether or not “time” is a “dimension.”   The Cosmic Onion Model resolves BOTH these questions. (1) It models forward-time as being all the normal-vectors (a right-angle line to these Onion-Layers pointing upward.)  (2) Because these layers are rotationally oscillating, think of these normal-vectors as being caught-up in these oscillations, thus these normal -vectors become tiny twisted springs.  Time is a dimension, but UNLIKE spatial dimensions – it is curled up. 

5.      The amplitude of these time-axes are proportional to Km, their durations = Planck-time, the path integral (length of the spiral pathway) is the Planck-length, and the wave-length (the = Planck-length/2π, also closely related to the reduced Planck Constant, hBar.  This is how the whole universe stays synchronized. 

6.      Light, as we see it is electromagnetic propagation.  Its speed is expressed as linear-distance/unit of time, i.e. 299,792,458 meters/second.  Another fundamental realization is that the electric-component of the wave is the propagation through space, whereas, the magnetic part of EM-waves is the temporal part (or time) moving through time with the surface of the Now-manifold.

7.      c is the time-to-space conversion factor;  c2 is the mass-to-energy & magnetism-to-electric field conversion factor: (c=speed-of-light, A=Amperes, C=Coulombs, h=Planck’s constant, ε0=electric permittivity, f=frequency, N=Newtons = force = mass*acceleration; kg=kilograms, m=meters, s=seconds, F=Farads)

Quantum

Space

=

Time

*c

hf    =

Energy

N(m)

=

Mass

[kg]

*c2

Energy can be expressed as force times distance.

 

G [N(m/kg)2]

kg m3 s2

6.67384x10-11

=

KΘ [N(s/kg)2]

m/kg

7.425648x10-28

*c2

Note: factoring Newtons out of the dimensional-units reveals “symmetry”; a pattern between mass-to-energy magnetism-to-electric field.


/

Ke

8.987551787x109

N(m/C)2

=

Km

1x10-7

N(s/C)2

*c2

In those cases where matter interacts with Electromagnetism these constants seem more appropriate than using 1/(4πε0) or µ0/4π.  Note: N(s/C)2 is equivalent to N/A2

* 4π=

1/ε0

1/8.8541878x10-12

[m/F]

=

µ0

1.256637061x10-6

N/A2

*c2

In those cases where we are talking about EM propagation, I believe these constants fit that context.  (Feedback anyone?)

Spirally polarized EM Wave propagation

“Do you know what pathway light dwells?”

8.      KΘ = half [ Schwarzschild_radius[PlanckMass] = 2*G*PlanckMass/c2 ].  But what does this mean?

a)      First, notice the dimensional units N(seconds/kilogram)2 this is a measure of how much each kilogram of matter slows down time!  The Cosmic Onion Model defines time as the expansion of Now-Manifold, which is slightly slower in and around massive objects.  This will be discussed more when we describe Matter and Gravity. 

b)      The most important thing to realize from the above table is that all 4-rows of the table say that the mass-to-energy and magnetic-to-electric conversion factor is always the speed-of-light squared!

c)      The disturbing realization is the Friedmann Equation is wrong.  

9.      SPACE: If a cubic meter of the Space Medium was just emptiness – then it would have one property – it would be a cubic-meter of nothingness.

10.  A TINY SLICE OF SPACE~TIME: The Space Medium has a density.  Imagine the time-line (Described in 4 above) as the tightly coiled spring.  These inward vs. outward standing-wave oscillations that construct the Cosmic Onion Layers, looking along a radial timeline, their circular vibrations would look something like these spheres rotating in-n-out of the page 1.8549x1044 times per second (the reciprocal of the Planck-time, tPlanck= 5.391x10-44 of a second).  They represent the tiny amount that the concentric Onion-layers oscillate relative to the adjacent layers.

11.  <---to-4D-Center of Cosmic Onion--OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO-----forward-time--->

a)      The mass of the volume of one-second’s worth of these spheres = 2.17641x10-5 grams – the Planck-mass.   So one sphere is only (mPlanck*tPlanck = 1.1733x10-48 of a gram-second.  Should CERN be concerned about this?  Yes, because THIS is the fundamental cause of mass.  (see 11.c)  This will be explained more when we get to Matter and Gravity. 

b)      Θne of these tiny Planck-spheres, magnified, with a sideways Capitol-I through the center along the time-axis would look like a Greek Capital-Theta.  The energy it takes for a point on the Now-Manifold to penetrate one of these Planck-spheres along the “I” happens to equal the reduced Planck Constant (hBar = h/2π).  So half the circumference of these tiny Planck-spheres is Planck’s Constant, h = 6.62606896x10-34 Joule-seconds.   Referring to the equation matrix above we see that to convert this amount of energy into mass we need only divide hBar by the speed-of-light squared.  (hBar/c2 = 1.1733x10-48 grams).   Two different calculations yielding the exact quantity:  mPlanck*tPlanck = hBar/c2  I’d bet this is the 1st time in the history of science that this has been described in terms of Quantum-scale geometry of the Space Medium and explained in terms of simple Quantum-Mechanical interactions. 

c)      Multiplying the equation above by Newton’s Gravitation constant yields this interesting equation-set – 3 relationships that relate 6 different physical constants all equal to 7.83088x10-59 m4/s (check power of ten).

(1a)

 

d)      Why is KΘ so important?  Above, it links gravity/mass to space~time.  Below, it is our quantum-link to unifying gravitation with electromagnetism as well as being half the value of the coefficient of the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equation, which connects our thinking to General Relativity, as well.  (qPlanck=Planck Charge, e=Fundamental Charge, α=Fine-structure constant.)

=

(1b)

Schwarzschild_Radius:  rs(ml) = 2Gml / c2 = 2Kθ

(1c)

e)      Now to describe photons.  Photons are snippets of waves that are the result of time itself being quantized.

(1)   The Cosmic Onion-layers act as a conduit for photons of light, radio waves and, indeed, the entire EM-spectrum, to travel.   As the Now-Manifold progressively expands through these Onion-Layers, photons travel along its surface between adjacent layers -- for half-an-instant -- these layers alternate; allowing left-hand spirally polarized photons to “ride” the surface of the Planck-spheres to the next pair of adjacent Onion-layers.  Then next half-time quantum the right-hand spirally polarized photons do the same.  And the process repeats.  Photon-waves don’t actually have to penetrate the layers so they do not manifest mass.  (Contrast this with matter-waves which DO have to penetrate the Planck-spheres.)

(2)   Electromagnetic propagation occurs on the surface of the Now-Manifold.  All EM interactions are the result of the shape of the Now-Manifold and its slope as it penetrates the Cosmic Onion Layers.  Electric potential manifests when there is a charge differential from one location of space to another – like the separation of plates in a capacitor.  Magnetic potential is when there is a charge differential in time from one place to another.  Yes, this means that a magnet’s existence is spread across time, maybe only picoseconds, but one end is slightly into the future and the other slightly displaced into the past.  A permanent magnet is a kind of Superconductor, but not in the sense of electrons flowing in a wire, rather as the “photon equivalent” of Superstrings flowing in the magnetic loop and through the magnet.  (This last statement is a bit speculative and represents the frontiers of my current thought process.)

f)       Charge itself is a kind of angular momentum, but NOT in a spatial sense, for it is around the local time-axis.  The “local time-axis” being the normal-vectors to the Cosmic Onion Layers.   Planck Charge is qPlanck = 1.875546x10-18 Coulombs, whereas, Fundamental Charge (i.e. proton’s positive and electron’s negative charge, is 1.602176565x10-19 Coulombs.)  These charges, I believe are proportional to this time-axis’ angular momentum.  Thus the value the Fine Structure Constant, α, is a geometric proportion that describes the torus-shaped orbitals of electrons and other details about the atomic nucleus.  (R is the Rydberg constant.)

(2a)

g)      Yet another first in the history of science is this new discovery that I publish for the first time here and now 28-Jan-2013:  (This has an uncertainty of less than 4.6x10­-8)

22.99859034 =

22.99859141  ::  CODATA-2007

22.99859213  ::  CODATA-2010

(2b)

 

φ is the Golden Ratio, 1.618033989…, mp is the mass of a proton, me is the mass of an electron. If funding permits, I would like to create a computer-based neural net of physical properties, formulae and the degree of certainty or uncertainty that NIST knows them.  Then by correlating these geometric/mathematical discoveries we can “arbitrate” the accuracies of these physical quantities. This would give the world more accurate values for these constants.

h)     Consider what happens to your mind’s perceptions as you become aware of the subtle differences in equation-set 2b above verses 2c below:

22.99859034 = 22.99859141

(2c)

 

B.      Matter is a collection of “particles”, which are not billiard balls, but rather 3rd stage manifestation of quantum-scale wave interactions as described below: 

1.      Particles” manifest from superstrings which, in turn, are the instantaneous intersection of the Now-Manifold as it “slides past” these hollow spring-shaped waves.   Spring diameter = particle size (which may also be a factor in the amplitude of charge), left- vs. right- handed twist = charge polarity, and frequency is proportional to mass = h*f/c2. 

a)      An electron’s wave-function is like a stretched-out spring, it presence winds its way through the Planck-spheres in a twisted pathway.  As the Now-Manifold “slides past” this electron-wave it helps the electron wave penetrate these Planck-spheres; the electron manifests mass.  The reaction to this is: this additional twisting slows the Now-Manifold’s expansion; this manifests as a dent proportional to the mass of the particle. 

b)      A proton’s wave-function has the opposite handedness as an electron and is 1836.15 times more tightly wound so it manifests that much more mass (active) and slows down time (reactive) making a deeper dent in the Now-Manifold.  (See Gravity explanation in C.1 below)

2.      When the centerlines of these spring-waves are perpendicular to the Onion-Layers – the “particle” is at absolute rest!  Conceptually, the Cosmic Onion Model has the unique ability to have an absolute reference frame – the Onion-Layers themselves provide an absolute coordinate in time.  By virtue of the normal vector to the Onion-layer, conceptually this gives us a reference for absolute rest. After careful thought I’ve realized THIS is Mach’s Principle taken to perfection.  Rather than the “stars” being the “frame of reference” the Cosmic Onion Layers determine the physical properties and laws.

3.      Inertia: the idea that matter at rest or in motion remains in that state until acted upon by a “force”.  

4.      Momentum = mass times the velocity of an object – the numeric value of kinetic energy of the object. 

5.       Each Onion-Layer, being like holographic film, captures the state of all particles as the Now-Manifold arrives.  For an electron the spring is the same handedness as the inward waves. This is a two-way exchange of frequency.  The particle “feels” the influence of waves arriving near itself and the particle’s own resonance radiates frequencies carried on the Now-Manifold as wavelength = c/f.   An electron itself resonates as X-rays, -AND- its orbital frequency, acting like a mini-antenna, receives and transmits at orbital frequency (usually within an octave or so of visible light).

a)      Positive electro-static charges are like a hill-top penetrating the Onion-layers, thus it creates radial force vectors away from the concentration of positive charge.  Negative electron-static creates a dent in the Now-Manifold thus as the Now-Manifold penetrates the Onion-layers the force vector points towards the negative charge concentration.    Electrodynamics comes from the fact the charge is a form of angular momentum, but NOT in the spatial dimensions, but rather around the time-axis.  This deserves a whole chapter and lots of illustrations and animations.  More stuff related to the angular momentum of “charge” and how that angular momentum dissipates on the Now-Manifold will go in the next section.

a)      ____

C.     Explain Forces of Nature

1.      Gravity: Large concentrations of matter (like planets and stars) result in jitter motion (quantum-scale thermodynamics) – slowing the Now-manifold’s expansion, diminishing with /distance2 from the mass, thus creating a dent in and around the object.  The temporal slope in the Now-Manifold, penetrating the Impedance of the Onion-Layers, manifests as the gravitational field.  The more massive an object is; the deeper the Now-Manifold dent.  The denser the object is; the steeper the temporal slope.  The steeper the slope the greater the affect of the Onion layers’ Impedance has on manifesting gravitational field strength.

a)      All the Planck Units known to Quantum Physics are defined in terms of Newton’s Gravitational Constant, which is the least accurate physical constant known to science. 

2.      Strong Nuclear “Force”: More properly called the “Strong Interaction” because it is not a force like EM or gravity – in that inverse-square does not apply.   Matter-waves are NOT point charges.  Below when I say “hollow”, the inside of the springs are filled with the Space Medium.

a)      They are hollow, so we never have to divide by radius=0.

b)      They are hollow, so they can be entangled with each other.

c)      The spring-waves can and DO twist around each other – this is what holds the nucleus together – simply quantum entanglement – it is not a force at all.  If anything it is the geometry of the angular momentum of the charge-mass of the spring-shaped waves that manifest as “particles”.

d)      The Dual-Slit Experiment: Fundamentally, electrons are waves, so when an electron is shot towards two slits, as it travels it resonates (active) with the quantum-foam (reactive), this results in scalar wave resonance with the medium, so the ejected electron, through this resonance with the Space Medium, is “more wave” “than particle” so it interferes with itself as it’s wave-front goes through BOTH slits.  Another Mystery Solved!

3.      Weak Nuclear “Force”: More properly called the “Weak Interaction.”  When an atomic nucleus has a perfect balance between proton-neutrons, it has symmetry.  The entangled nucleon-pairs wrap in a bundle and vibrate in a stable fashion.  When addition neutrons are inserted into or wrapped around the nucleus, more often than not, this breaks symmetry.   Now, as this bundle penetrates the resistance of the Onion-layers it causes part of it to twist.  This twisting builds up a torsional tension around the time-axis, which in time, reaches a threshold; suddenly breaking away – causing thermonuclear decay.  I envision, that the distinguishing factor that determines alpha decay verses beta decay is that beta-decay involves a lone-neutron that twists on the surface of the “layering” of the bundles of proton-neutron pairs.  (This “layering” is analogies to the electron orbital shells – and, in fact, is the core reason for those shells.)   Alpha-decay involves a proton-neutron pair, twisting around a second pair.  This double-pair bundle, in time, twists up to the point, that the torsional tension just can’t take it anymore, and snaps the entanglement, suddenly releasing the built-up energy and an alpha particle.

D.    Explain 3 types of redshift (sometimes blueshift) and their correspondence to 3 Relativity Theories

1.      Special Relativity: when an object is moving, especially as its velocity approaches the speed of light.

Consider this crude diagram.  This is a tiny cross-section of space~time.  Forward time is the top section of our diagram while the bottom represents the past.  The center section represents the amount the universe expands in 1 second.  The horizontal lines represent the quantum thin Cosmic-Onion-layers though the lines and gaps are not drawn to scale.  In reality they are so fine that they sub-divide an individual proton by many orders of magnitude.  The “springs” are the oscillating wave-functions that represent particles of matter.  Remember, the “size” of a particle is the amplitude of the wave oscillations and the “mass” of a particle is proportionate to the number of wave-oscillations per second.   The spring on the left is a particle at rest determined by the centerline of the spring intersecting the Onion-layers at a right angle, thus having the minimal number of oscillations per second. This is what physicists call “the rest mass of a particle.”  The middle spring-wave shows more oscillations fitting into the same 1 second time gap and represents a particle moving at about 20% of the speed of light.  The right most spring represents a particle moving at about half the speed of light.   From the viewpoint of an observer at rest, the additional oscillations per second means the particles appears to the stationary observer to manifest more mass.  But, from the particle’s viewpoint (or co-moving observer) the duration of a second is less, so the particle always sees itself as manifesting its rest mass. 

2.      General Relativity: in and near concentrations of matter, the interaction of the spring-shaped SphereDimple1quantum-scale jitter motion slows down Space Now-Manifold expansion.  Creating a dent in the Now Manifold.

Matter slows space~time expansion with diminishing effect with distance (what we perceive as the inverse square law). 

This results in a dent in the ever expanding Now-manifold; the slope of the dent, as it penetrates the Cosmic Onion layers, causes gravity.  Light traversing this “gravity well” gets bent spatially and stretched temporally.  These effects involve the curvature of space around the barycenter of objects.

3.      Cosmological Relativity: Both space and clock-rates expand as time proceeds forward.  This has a profound effect on our perception of time and the age of the universe.

(1)        The speed of light in a vacuum is always: 299,792,458 meters/second within each reference frame.   Note that speed is a RATIO: distance per unit-of-time.  This does not mean distance is fixed nor does it mean clock rates are fixed.

(2)        What this DOES mean is that with the forward flow of time, a meter expands by some amount while the duration of one second changes by the same ratio.

As the universe expands, clock rates are winding down.  This means ALL natural processes are slowing down proportional to the reciprocal of the age of “the volume of space” the object is occupying.  Even the atoms within an object expand as space itself expands.  Redshifts occur while light is in-transit, while space itself is expanding.  This dramatically affects any light-year calculations.  Note Space~time-Age-Relativity involves the curvature of space~time centered around the origin point of our Cosmos – the center of our Cosmic Onion. Where’s that?  It’s in the center of space~time.  It is probably NOT a point at the origin of (0,0,0,0) 4D Cosmic Onion, but rather an 4D sphere offset by 1/2 time-quantum from the origin point with an angular momentum of h with an initial size of 1 time-quantum. 

E.      Explain the Pioneer 10 & 11 Acceleration Anomaly.

1.      These spacecraft are not tied to Earth-Sun reference-frame and are moving faster than escape velocity leaving our solar system.  They are not 3,000 miles off position per year, as most scientists believe.  At that distance they cosmological reference frame is taking them into the future 16.1 milliseconds per year, relative to our Earth-based reference frame.


 

F.      Explain Dark Matter: Unlike our solar system, which has 99%+ of its mass in the Sun, mass within galaxies
is UNEVENLY distributed.  Higher density in the center halo area, less along the arms, and lesser still in the gaps between the spiral arms.  This causes the Now-Manifold, itself, to become a spiral shaped vortex.  Thus, the net effect is, stars do not “fall” towards the center of the galaxy; but, the local slope in the Now-Manifold says they are falling, primarily, towards the inner contours of the Now-Manifold vortex.  This twist in space~time explains spiral arm stability.

G.     Explain Dark Energy

1.      Dark Energy is such an enigma I’m thinking I should not just give this one away.

2.      This aspect about cosmology is the second hardest one to confront (understanding the nature of time is the toughest) and even more difficult to convey.  Briefly, it requires the reader/listener to allow their mind’s eye to go on a journey.  To be willing to let go of the limitations of Earthly perceptions, which are immersed in our Earth-based inertial reference frame; and to transcend above the Now-Manifold out-to a vantage point above and higher and higher into the outer darkness, looking back you would see the overall hyper-spherical geometry of the cosmos.  From such a perspective one can observe the forward flow of time as the entire universe expands.  You would see galaxies as they surf & slowly twist the Now-Manifold wave-front away from the center of the Cosmic Onion expanding, albeit slower than the Space Now-Manifold around them.  Focusing your attention on light rays radiating away from these galaxies and zooming in your perspective you would see these light-waves riding the surface of the Now-Manifold – like little wind-swept ripples on the surge of ocean waves.   You would become aware of the wave-lengths of these light-waves stretching with the expansion of space itself.

3.      Have I already lost the reader?  Should I go further?   Or do I need to create detailed graphics and animations? 

H.    Explain Dark Flow: Deep space observations between the constellation of Centaurs and Vela.

I.        Explain the true nature of time

J.         Conclusion